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Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, prostate real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, mind but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian
Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, prostate real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, mind but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian

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sans-serif”>
ABC News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 672 news articles »

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

hygiene
sans-serif”>
Fox News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 678 news articles »

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

hygiene
sans-serif”>
Fox News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 678 news articles »

abortion
sans-serif”>
Fox News

German satellite ROSAT crash in Sichuan? Not likely
GoChengdoo (blog)
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Spacetrack gives ROSAT's re-entry coordinates as 7° N/90° E Southwest of the Andaman Island and re-entry into the earth's orbit between 0145 GMT to 0215 (between 9:45 and 10:15 am Beijing time) and would have taken
German ROSAT Satellite Has Fallen to Earth, Say NASA SourcesABC News
Europe Safe From Falling German Satellite DebrisSpace.com
German ROSAT Space Junk Satellite Re-Entered Earth's AtmosphereBrevard Times
NPR –Daily Local News –WSBT-TV
all 1,251 news articles »

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

hygiene
sans-serif”>
Fox News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 678 news articles »

abortion
sans-serif”>
Fox News

German satellite ROSAT crash in Sichuan? Not likely
GoChengdoo (blog)
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Spacetrack gives ROSAT's re-entry coordinates as 7° N/90° E Southwest of the Andaman Island and re-entry into the earth's orbit between 0145 GMT to 0215 (between 9:45 and 10:15 am Beijing time) and would have taken
German ROSAT Satellite Has Fallen to Earth, Say NASA SourcesABC News
Europe Safe From Falling German Satellite DebrisSpace.com
German ROSAT Space Junk Satellite Re-Entered Earth's AtmosphereBrevard Times
NPR –Daily Local News –WSBT-TV
all 1,251 news articles »

allergist
sans-serif”>
Space Ref (press release)
neuropathologist
sans-serif”>

European experts gather at space hazards seminar
Space Ref (press release)
Strong agreement was voiced on the need for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) by delegates representing a wide range of European-level and national stakeholders at an SSA seminar in Warsaw while exchanging views and ideas on the future direction of

and more »

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

hygiene
sans-serif”>
Fox News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 678 news articles »

abortion
sans-serif”>
Fox News

German satellite ROSAT crash in Sichuan? Not likely
GoChengdoo (blog)
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Spacetrack gives ROSAT's re-entry coordinates as 7° N/90° E Southwest of the Andaman Island and re-entry into the earth's orbit between 0145 GMT to 0215 (between 9:45 and 10:15 am Beijing time) and would have taken
German ROSAT Satellite Has Fallen to Earth, Say NASA SourcesABC News
Europe Safe From Falling German Satellite DebrisSpace.com
German ROSAT Space Junk Satellite Re-Entered Earth's AtmosphereBrevard Times
NPR –Daily Local News –WSBT-TV
all 1,251 news articles »

allergist
sans-serif”>
Space Ref (press release)
neuropathologist
sans-serif”>

European experts gather at space hazards seminar
Space Ref (press release)
Strong agreement was voiced on the need for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) by delegates representing a wide range of European-level and national stakeholders at an SSA seminar in Warsaw while exchanging views and ideas on the future direction of

and more »

life
sans-serif”>

The Space Generation Advisory Council Holds Impressive 10th Anniversary Congress
Space Ref (press release)
Their recommendations focused on three areas: space situational awareness, better and internationally-adopted debris mitigation guidelines and, finally, the more challenging topic of active debris removal. The SGC 2011 Agency Project Group,

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

hygiene
sans-serif”>
Fox News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 678 news articles »

abortion
sans-serif”>
Fox News

German satellite ROSAT crash in Sichuan? Not likely
GoChengdoo (blog)
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Spacetrack gives ROSAT's re-entry coordinates as 7° N/90° E Southwest of the Andaman Island and re-entry into the earth's orbit between 0145 GMT to 0215 (between 9:45 and 10:15 am Beijing time) and would have taken
German ROSAT Satellite Has Fallen to Earth, Say NASA SourcesABC News
Europe Safe From Falling German Satellite DebrisSpace.com
German ROSAT Space Junk Satellite Re-Entered Earth's AtmosphereBrevard Times
NPR –Daily Local News –WSBT-TV
all 1,251 news articles »

allergist
sans-serif”>
Space Ref (press release)
neuropathologist
sans-serif”>

European experts gather at space hazards seminar
Space Ref (press release)
Strong agreement was voiced on the need for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) by delegates representing a wide range of European-level and national stakeholders at an SSA seminar in Warsaw while exchanging views and ideas on the future direction of

and more »

life
sans-serif”>

The Space Generation Advisory Council Holds Impressive 10th Anniversary Congress
Space Ref (press release)
Their recommendations focused on three areas: space situational awareness, better and internationally-adopted debris mitigation guidelines and, finally, the more challenging topic of active debris removal. The SGC 2011 Agency Project Group,

grip
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine
sovaldi sale
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the
Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of VolunteersDaily Crowdsource (blog)

all 2 news articles »

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

hygiene
sans-serif”>
Fox News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 678 news articles »

abortion
sans-serif”>
Fox News

German satellite ROSAT crash in Sichuan? Not likely
GoChengdoo (blog)
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Spacetrack gives ROSAT's re-entry coordinates as 7° N/90° E Southwest of the Andaman Island and re-entry into the earth's orbit between 0145 GMT to 0215 (between 9:45 and 10:15 am Beijing time) and would have taken
German ROSAT Satellite Has Fallen to Earth, Say NASA SourcesABC News
Europe Safe From Falling German Satellite DebrisSpace.com
German ROSAT Space Junk Satellite Re-Entered Earth's AtmosphereBrevard Times
NPR –Daily Local News –WSBT-TV
all 1,251 news articles »

allergist
sans-serif”>
Space Ref (press release)
neuropathologist
sans-serif”>

European experts gather at space hazards seminar
Space Ref (press release)
Strong agreement was voiced on the need for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) by delegates representing a wide range of European-level and national stakeholders at an SSA seminar in Warsaw while exchanging views and ideas on the future direction of

and more »

life
sans-serif”>

The Space Generation Advisory Council Holds Impressive 10th Anniversary Congress
Space Ref (press release)
Their recommendations focused on three areas: space situational awareness, better and internationally-adopted debris mitigation guidelines and, finally, the more challenging topic of active debris removal. The SGC 2011 Agency Project Group,

grip
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine
sovaldi sale
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the
Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of VolunteersDaily Crowdsource (blog)

all 2 news articles »

vitamin
sans-serif”>

Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of Volunteers
Daily Crowdsource (blog)
Its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has found its first Near-Earth Object, an asteroid, all thanks to an online community of volunteers. The project works by using the ESA-sponsored observatory TOTAS (Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

hygiene
sans-serif”>
Fox News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 678 news articles »

abortion
sans-serif”>
Fox News

German satellite ROSAT crash in Sichuan? Not likely
GoChengdoo (blog)
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Spacetrack gives ROSAT's re-entry coordinates as 7° N/90° E Southwest of the Andaman Island and re-entry into the earth's orbit between 0145 GMT to 0215 (between 9:45 and 10:15 am Beijing time) and would have taken
German ROSAT Satellite Has Fallen to Earth, Say NASA SourcesABC News
Europe Safe From Falling German Satellite DebrisSpace.com
German ROSAT Space Junk Satellite Re-Entered Earth's AtmosphereBrevard Times
NPR –Daily Local News –WSBT-TV
all 1,251 news articles »

allergist
sans-serif”>
Space Ref (press release)
neuropathologist
sans-serif”>

European experts gather at space hazards seminar
Space Ref (press release)
Strong agreement was voiced on the need for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) by delegates representing a wide range of European-level and national stakeholders at an SSA seminar in Warsaw while exchanging views and ideas on the future direction of

and more »

life
sans-serif”>

The Space Generation Advisory Council Holds Impressive 10th Anniversary Congress
Space Ref (press release)
Their recommendations focused on three areas: space situational awareness, better and internationally-adopted debris mitigation guidelines and, finally, the more challenging topic of active debris removal. The SGC 2011 Agency Project Group,

grip
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine
sovaldi sale
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the
Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of VolunteersDaily Crowdsource (blog)

all 2 news articles »

vitamin
sans-serif”>

Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of Volunteers
Daily Crowdsource (blog)
Its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has found its first Near-Earth Object, an asteroid, all thanks to an online community of volunteers. The project works by using the ESA-sponsored observatory TOTAS (Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid

clinic sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk
ascariasis
sans-serif”>

German ROSAT Satelite Heading Towards Uncontrolled Re-Entry to Earth
Universe Today
During the re-entry phase of the satellite, doctor German scientists will be evaluating data from the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN). In addition, the Tracking and Imaging Radar (TIRA), the large radar facility at the Fraunhofer Institute for
Falling German Satellite Poses 1-in-2000 Risk of Striking Someone This MonthSpace.com
Canada in potential impact zone of next falling satelliteCTV.ca

all 90 news articles »

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

hygiene
sans-serif”>
Fox News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 678 news articles »

abortion
sans-serif”>
Fox News

German satellite ROSAT crash in Sichuan? Not likely
GoChengdoo (blog)
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Spacetrack gives ROSAT's re-entry coordinates as 7° N/90° E Southwest of the Andaman Island and re-entry into the earth's orbit between 0145 GMT to 0215 (between 9:45 and 10:15 am Beijing time) and would have taken
German ROSAT Satellite Has Fallen to Earth, Say NASA SourcesABC News
Europe Safe From Falling German Satellite DebrisSpace.com
German ROSAT Space Junk Satellite Re-Entered Earth's AtmosphereBrevard Times
NPR –Daily Local News –WSBT-TV
all 1,251 news articles »

allergist
sans-serif”>
Space Ref (press release)
neuropathologist
sans-serif”>

European experts gather at space hazards seminar
Space Ref (press release)
Strong agreement was voiced on the need for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) by delegates representing a wide range of European-level and national stakeholders at an SSA seminar in Warsaw while exchanging views and ideas on the future direction of

and more »

life
sans-serif”>

The Space Generation Advisory Council Holds Impressive 10th Anniversary Congress
Space Ref (press release)
Their recommendations focused on three areas: space situational awareness, better and internationally-adopted debris mitigation guidelines and, finally, the more challenging topic of active debris removal. The SGC 2011 Agency Project Group,

grip
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine
sovaldi sale
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the
Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of VolunteersDaily Crowdsource (blog)

all 2 news articles »

vitamin
sans-serif”>

Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of Volunteers
Daily Crowdsource (blog)
Its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has found its first Near-Earth Object, an asteroid, all thanks to an online community of volunteers. The project works by using the ESA-sponsored observatory TOTAS (Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid

clinic sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk
ascariasis
sans-serif”>

German ROSAT Satelite Heading Towards Uncontrolled Re-Entry to Earth
Universe Today
During the re-entry phase of the satellite, doctor German scientists will be evaluating data from the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN). In addition, the Tracking and Imaging Radar (TIRA), the large radar facility at the Fraunhofer Institute for
Falling German Satellite Poses 1-in-2000 Risk of Striking Someone This MonthSpace.com
Canada in potential impact zone of next falling satelliteCTV.ca

all 90 news articles »

order sans-serif”>
Space Daily
adiposity
sans-serif”>

Near-Earth Asteroid Discovered via Crowdsourcing
Discovery News
The ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has scored its first hit. Although SSA astronomers have detected asteroids before, this is the first time that a near-Earth object (NEO) has been spotted by the group of volunteers.
Amateur astronomers spot asteroid moving toward EarthBrahmand Defence and Aerospace News

all 7 news articles »

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

hygiene
sans-serif”>
Fox News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 678 news articles »

abortion
sans-serif”>
Fox News

German satellite ROSAT crash in Sichuan? Not likely
GoChengdoo (blog)
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Spacetrack gives ROSAT's re-entry coordinates as 7° N/90° E Southwest of the Andaman Island and re-entry into the earth's orbit between 0145 GMT to 0215 (between 9:45 and 10:15 am Beijing time) and would have taken
German ROSAT Satellite Has Fallen to Earth, Say NASA SourcesABC News
Europe Safe From Falling German Satellite DebrisSpace.com
German ROSAT Space Junk Satellite Re-Entered Earth's AtmosphereBrevard Times
NPR –Daily Local News –WSBT-TV
all 1,251 news articles »

allergist
sans-serif”>
Space Ref (press release)
neuropathologist
sans-serif”>

European experts gather at space hazards seminar
Space Ref (press release)
Strong agreement was voiced on the need for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) by delegates representing a wide range of European-level and national stakeholders at an SSA seminar in Warsaw while exchanging views and ideas on the future direction of

and more »

life
sans-serif”>

The Space Generation Advisory Council Holds Impressive 10th Anniversary Congress
Space Ref (press release)
Their recommendations focused on three areas: space situational awareness, better and internationally-adopted debris mitigation guidelines and, finally, the more challenging topic of active debris removal. The SGC 2011 Agency Project Group,

grip
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine
sovaldi sale
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the
Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of VolunteersDaily Crowdsource (blog)

all 2 news articles »

vitamin
sans-serif”>

Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of Volunteers
Daily Crowdsource (blog)
Its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has found its first Near-Earth Object, an asteroid, all thanks to an online community of volunteers. The project works by using the ESA-sponsored observatory TOTAS (Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid

clinic sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk
ascariasis
sans-serif”>

German ROSAT Satelite Heading Towards Uncontrolled Re-Entry to Earth
Universe Today
During the re-entry phase of the satellite, doctor German scientists will be evaluating data from the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN). In addition, the Tracking and Imaging Radar (TIRA), the large radar facility at the Fraunhofer Institute for
Falling German Satellite Poses 1-in-2000 Risk of Striking Someone This MonthSpace.com
Canada in potential impact zone of next falling satelliteCTV.ca

all 90 news articles »

order sans-serif”>
Space Daily
adiposity
sans-serif”>

Near-Earth Asteroid Discovered via Crowdsourcing
Discovery News
The ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has scored its first hit. Although SSA astronomers have detected asteroids before, this is the first time that a near-Earth object (NEO) has been spotted by the group of volunteers.
Amateur astronomers spot asteroid moving toward EarthBrahmand Defence and Aerospace News

all 7 news articles »

symptoms
sans-serif”>

Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of Volunteers
Daily Crowdsource (blog)
Its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has found its first Near-Earth Object, an asteroid, all thanks to an online community of volunteers. The project works by using the ESA-sponsored observatory TOTAS (Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

hygiene
sans-serif”>
Fox News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 678 news articles »

abortion
sans-serif”>
Fox News

German satellite ROSAT crash in Sichuan? Not likely
GoChengdoo (blog)
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Spacetrack gives ROSAT's re-entry coordinates as 7° N/90° E Southwest of the Andaman Island and re-entry into the earth's orbit between 0145 GMT to 0215 (between 9:45 and 10:15 am Beijing time) and would have taken
German ROSAT Satellite Has Fallen to Earth, Say NASA SourcesABC News
Europe Safe From Falling German Satellite DebrisSpace.com
German ROSAT Space Junk Satellite Re-Entered Earth's AtmosphereBrevard Times
NPR –Daily Local News –WSBT-TV
all 1,251 news articles »

allergist
sans-serif”>
Space Ref (press release)
neuropathologist
sans-serif”>

European experts gather at space hazards seminar
Space Ref (press release)
Strong agreement was voiced on the need for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) by delegates representing a wide range of European-level and national stakeholders at an SSA seminar in Warsaw while exchanging views and ideas on the future direction of

and more »

life
sans-serif”>

The Space Generation Advisory Council Holds Impressive 10th Anniversary Congress
Space Ref (press release)
Their recommendations focused on three areas: space situational awareness, better and internationally-adopted debris mitigation guidelines and, finally, the more challenging topic of active debris removal. The SGC 2011 Agency Project Group,

grip
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine
sovaldi sale
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the
Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of VolunteersDaily Crowdsource (blog)

all 2 news articles »

vitamin
sans-serif”>

Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of Volunteers
Daily Crowdsource (blog)
Its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has found its first Near-Earth Object, an asteroid, all thanks to an online community of volunteers. The project works by using the ESA-sponsored observatory TOTAS (Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid

clinic sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk
ascariasis
sans-serif”>

German ROSAT Satelite Heading Towards Uncontrolled Re-Entry to Earth
Universe Today
During the re-entry phase of the satellite, doctor German scientists will be evaluating data from the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN). In addition, the Tracking and Imaging Radar (TIRA), the large radar facility at the Fraunhofer Institute for
Falling German Satellite Poses 1-in-2000 Risk of Striking Someone This MonthSpace.com
Canada in potential impact zone of next falling satelliteCTV.ca

all 90 news articles »

order sans-serif”>
Space Daily
adiposity
sans-serif”>

Near-Earth Asteroid Discovered via Crowdsourcing
Discovery News
The ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has scored its first hit. Although SSA astronomers have detected asteroids before, this is the first time that a near-Earth object (NEO) has been spotted by the group of volunteers.
Amateur astronomers spot asteroid moving toward EarthBrahmand Defence and Aerospace News

all 7 news articles »

symptoms
sans-serif”>

Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of Volunteers
Daily Crowdsource (blog)
Its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has found its first Near-Earth Object, an asteroid, all thanks to an online community of volunteers. The project works by using the ESA-sponsored observatory TOTAS (Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid

viagra buy
sans-serif”>

Space Junk Tracking: Air Force Academy, Colo. Colleges Form Falcon Telescope
Huffington Post
The Air Force Academy's Center for Space Situational Awareness Research (CSSAR) has been awarded a nearly $800000 grant to help track space junk that could crash into the International Space Station or satellites, according to the Colorado Springs

and more »

The ESA OGS (image credit: Emmet Fletcher)

There are sometimes confusing statements made regarding the different sensors used within a Space Situational Awareness (SSA) system. Even if we are discussing radar or optical, health there are – in essence – three types of sensor: surveillance, viagra tracking and imaging. Since imaging sensors are a very special type – and do not figure in the development of the ESA SSA system, we will ignore them for this specific discussion. What we will discuss here is the difference between surveillance and tracking sensors – a difference that is often overlooked or ignored or just not understood, but is of prime concern when discussing the development of an effective space surveillance system.

Tracking Sensors

It is probably easier to start any discussion of the differences between tracking and surveillance sensors by focusing (no pun intended) on the major characteristics of a tracking sensor.

Tracking sensors usually have a very small field of view. Given a fixed detector performance, the smaller the field of view, the more precise the locations of the objects detected within this field of view (when comparing like-for-like). This is fantastic when you want to increase the precision of an object for when you already have some orbital data of, such as a piece of debris for which you have a rough orbit and may collide with an operational spacecraft. You just take this rough orbit and set your tracking sensor to point along this orbit at the position you think the debris should be. When you see the debris, you can then create a more precise orbit – since your detector is looking at a very small region of space and so has a high precision.

The problem is – of course – that since you only see a small area of the sky, if the error on your rough orbit is too high, you might not see the debris at all (it might slip by outside your field of view). It also makes these sensors very inefficient (read: almost useless) for the build-up a catalogue of objects. Since the view is small, it is difficult to trap new objects, unless you are very lucky. Even then, given the small view, you only have a very short reading as the debris passes across the sensor. This results in an initial orbit guess (orbit determination) which can have very high errors. For the development and maintenance of a catalogue, we need a surveillance sensor.

Examples of European tracking sensors: TIRA (Germany), BEM Monge (France), OGS (ESA), CAMRA (UK)

Surveillance Sensors

The TFRM (image credits: Emmet Fletcher)

A surveillance sensor is the workhorse of a surveillance system. It provides the data for both the initial catalogue development (the so-called ‘cold start’) as well as the day-to-day maintenance of the catalogue.

The main difference between the tracking and surveillance sensor is that the surveillance sensor sees a very large area of the sky at the same time. It is also not actively looking for objects, but rather passively (which counter-intuitively can be active) waiting for debris – any debris – to pass over it. Once it detects something passing over it, the data related to this pass is processed and passed to the catalogue maintenance system.

In this way, the surveillance sensor creates a ‘fence’ which is triggered by any object passing through it. No prior information is needed by the sensor to generate new data regarding a specific debris object and the system therefore does not need to be ‘tasked’ to look out for an object. In reality, the fence can also be generated using an active sensor scanning the sky with a frequency that ensures nothing will be missed. This is the case for radar systems which quickly scan across a path. It doesn’t look in all directions at all times, but still forms an effective fence.

Through the use of surveillance sensors, a catalogue can be built up. The precision of this catalogue will not be very high initially, although the design of the surveillance network should be such that the eventual precision using just the surveillance assets will be enough to give a reliable warning of potential collisions with operational satellites. When the warning is triggered, then comes the turn of the tracking sensors to refine the orbit of this debris and provide the precise information that satellite operators need to plan their manoeuvres.

Examples of European surveillance sensors: GRAVES (France), RAF Fylingdales (UK/US), TFRM (Spain)

If you have any comments, clarifications, corrections or suggestions – please comment!

medicine
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
healing
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the

and more »

hygiene
sans-serif”>
Fox News

Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness,” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 678 news articles »

abortion
sans-serif”>
Fox News

German satellite ROSAT crash in Sichuan? Not likely
GoChengdoo (blog)
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Spacetrack gives ROSAT's re-entry coordinates as 7° N/90° E Southwest of the Andaman Island and re-entry into the earth's orbit between 0145 GMT to 0215 (between 9:45 and 10:15 am Beijing time) and would have taken
German ROSAT Satellite Has Fallen to Earth, Say NASA SourcesABC News
Europe Safe From Falling German Satellite DebrisSpace.com
German ROSAT Space Junk Satellite Re-Entered Earth's AtmosphereBrevard Times
NPR –Daily Local News –WSBT-TV
all 1,251 news articles »

allergist
sans-serif”>
Space Ref (press release)
neuropathologist
sans-serif”>

European experts gather at space hazards seminar
Space Ref (press release)
Strong agreement was voiced on the need for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) by delegates representing a wide range of European-level and national stakeholders at an SSA seminar in Warsaw while exchanging views and ideas on the future direction of

and more »

life
sans-serif”>

The Space Generation Advisory Council Holds Impressive 10th Anniversary Congress
Space Ref (press release)
Their recommendations focused on three areas: space situational awareness, better and internationally-adopted debris mitigation guidelines and, finally, the more challenging topic of active debris removal. The SGC 2011 Agency Project Group,

grip
sans-serif”>
Astrobiology Magazine
sovaldi sale
sans-serif”>

Amateur Skywatchers Spot Near Earth Asteroid Threat
Astrobiology Magazine (press release)
The discovery of asteroid 2011 SF108 was made by the volunteer Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid Survey (TOTAS) team during an observation slot sponsored by ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program in September. The four-night survey used the
Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of VolunteersDaily Crowdsource (blog)

all 2 news articles »

vitamin
sans-serif”>

Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of Volunteers
Daily Crowdsource (blog)
Its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has found its first Near-Earth Object, an asteroid, all thanks to an online community of volunteers. The project works by using the ESA-sponsored observatory TOTAS (Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid

clinic sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk
ascariasis
sans-serif”>

German ROSAT Satelite Heading Towards Uncontrolled Re-Entry to Earth
Universe Today
During the re-entry phase of the satellite, doctor German scientists will be evaluating data from the US Space Surveillance Network (SSN). In addition, the Tracking and Imaging Radar (TIRA), the large radar facility at the Fraunhofer Institute for
Falling German Satellite Poses 1-in-2000 Risk of Striking Someone This MonthSpace.com
Canada in potential impact zone of next falling satelliteCTV.ca

all 90 news articles »

order sans-serif”>
Space Daily
adiposity
sans-serif”>

Near-Earth Asteroid Discovered via Crowdsourcing
Discovery News
The ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has scored its first hit. Although SSA astronomers have detected asteroids before, this is the first time that a near-Earth object (NEO) has been spotted by the group of volunteers.
Amateur astronomers spot asteroid moving toward EarthBrahmand Defence and Aerospace News

all 7 news articles »

symptoms
sans-serif”>

Near Earth Object Discovered by Crowdsourced Group of Volunteers
Daily Crowdsource (blog)
Its Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program has found its first Near-Earth Object, an asteroid, all thanks to an online community of volunteers. The project works by using the ESA-sponsored observatory TOTAS (Teide Observatory Tenerife Asteroid

viagra buy
sans-serif”>

Space Junk Tracking: Air Force Academy, Colo. Colleges Form Falcon Telescope
Huffington Post
The Air Force Academy's Center for Space Situational Awareness Research (CSSAR) has been awarded a nearly $800000 grant to help track space junk that could crash into the International Space Station or satellites, according to the Colorado Springs

and more »

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CTV.ca
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Exton firm gains fame tracking space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of “space situational awareness, cheap
” or the understanding of what's happening in space with regards to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this

Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 670 news articles »

Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the
Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

ampoule sans-serif”> angina
sans-serif”>

US military satellite to get attack-warning equipment
Register
including those of Aviation Week on Wednesday that a classified satellite is now planned to go into space equipped with a Self-Awareness Space Situational Awareness (SASSA) package, traumatologist
kit which the Pentagon has been working on for some time.


and more »

Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

ampoule sans-serif”> angina
sans-serif”>

US military satellite to get attack-warning equipment
Register
including those of Aviation Week on Wednesday that a classified satellite is now planned to go into space equipped with a Self-Awareness Space Situational Awareness (SASSA) package, traumatologist
kit which the Pentagon has been working on for some time.


and more »

cialis 40mg
sans-serif”>
anesthetist
sans-serif”>

Looking out for falling objects
Santa Maria Times
Michael Duncan, about it
deputy chief of space situational awareness for the Joint Space Operations Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, shows a hollow rocket body fuel tank Tuesday that re-entered the atmosphere. Duncan explains how his team determines where


Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

ampoule sans-serif”> angina
sans-serif”>

US military satellite to get attack-warning equipment
Register
including those of Aviation Week on Wednesday that a classified satellite is now planned to go into space equipped with a Self-Awareness Space Situational Awareness (SASSA) package, traumatologist
kit which the Pentagon has been working on for some time.


and more »

cialis 40mg
sans-serif”>
anesthetist
sans-serif”>

Looking out for falling objects
Santa Maria Times
Michael Duncan, about it
deputy chief of space situational awareness for the Joint Space Operations Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, shows a hollow rocket body fuel tank Tuesday that re-entered the atmosphere. Duncan explains how his team determines where


link
sans-serif”>
DVICE

Hear the death wail of a meteor as it burns up in our atmosphere
DVICE
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Radar in Texas tried this during the Perseid meteor shower, and the resulting recording sounds appropriately alien. What you're about to hear in the following clip are two distinct noises caused by the brief but

and more »

Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

ampoule sans-serif”> angina
sans-serif”>

US military satellite to get attack-warning equipment
Register
including those of Aviation Week on Wednesday that a classified satellite is now planned to go into space equipped with a Self-Awareness Space Situational Awareness (SASSA) package, traumatologist
kit which the Pentagon has been working on for some time.


and more »

cialis 40mg
sans-serif”>
anesthetist
sans-serif”>

Looking out for falling objects
Santa Maria Times
Michael Duncan, about it
deputy chief of space situational awareness for the Joint Space Operations Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, shows a hollow rocket body fuel tank Tuesday that re-entered the atmosphere. Duncan explains how his team determines where


link
sans-serif”>
DVICE

Hear the death wail of a meteor as it burns up in our atmosphere
DVICE
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Radar in Texas tried this during the Perseid meteor shower, and the resulting recording sounds appropriately alien. What you're about to hear in the following clip are two distinct noises caused by the brief but

and more »

here
sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk

Falling space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of "space situational awareness," or the understanding of what's happening in space with regard to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 684 news articles »

Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

ampoule sans-serif”> angina
sans-serif”>

US military satellite to get attack-warning equipment
Register
including those of Aviation Week on Wednesday that a classified satellite is now planned to go into space equipped with a Self-Awareness Space Situational Awareness (SASSA) package, traumatologist
kit which the Pentagon has been working on for some time.


and more »

cialis 40mg
sans-serif”>
anesthetist
sans-serif”>

Looking out for falling objects
Santa Maria Times
Michael Duncan, about it
deputy chief of space situational awareness for the Joint Space Operations Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, shows a hollow rocket body fuel tank Tuesday that re-entered the atmosphere. Duncan explains how his team determines where


link
sans-serif”>
DVICE

Hear the death wail of a meteor as it burns up in our atmosphere
DVICE
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Radar in Texas tried this during the Perseid meteor shower, and the resulting recording sounds appropriately alien. What you're about to hear in the following clip are two distinct noises caused by the brief but

and more »

here
sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk

Falling space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of "space situational awareness," or the understanding of what's happening in space with regard to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 684 news articles »

meningitis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
salve
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, Phimosis
though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have

Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
Los Angeles Times –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

ampoule sans-serif”> angina
sans-serif”>

US military satellite to get attack-warning equipment
Register
including those of Aviation Week on Wednesday that a classified satellite is now planned to go into space equipped with a Self-Awareness Space Situational Awareness (SASSA) package, traumatologist
kit which the Pentagon has been working on for some time.


and more »

cialis 40mg
sans-serif”>
anesthetist
sans-serif”>

Looking out for falling objects
Santa Maria Times
Michael Duncan, about it
deputy chief of space situational awareness for the Joint Space Operations Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, shows a hollow rocket body fuel tank Tuesday that re-entered the atmosphere. Duncan explains how his team determines where


link
sans-serif”>
DVICE

Hear the death wail of a meteor as it burns up in our atmosphere
DVICE
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Radar in Texas tried this during the Perseid meteor shower, and the resulting recording sounds appropriately alien. What you're about to hear in the following clip are two distinct noises caused by the brief but

and more »

here
sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk

Falling space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of "space situational awareness," or the understanding of what's happening in space with regard to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 684 news articles »

meningitis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
salve
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, Phimosis
though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have

Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
Los Angeles Times –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

herbal
sans-serif”>
The Hindu

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
NASA Satellite Re-entry This Week – Experts Available to Discuss Issues Newswise (press release)
Q&A: Falling satellites and space junkmsnbc.com
The Guardian –TIME –Santa Barbara Independent
all 5,774 news articles »

Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

ampoule sans-serif”> angina
sans-serif”>

US military satellite to get attack-warning equipment
Register
including those of Aviation Week on Wednesday that a classified satellite is now planned to go into space equipped with a Self-Awareness Space Situational Awareness (SASSA) package, traumatologist
kit which the Pentagon has been working on for some time.


and more »

cialis 40mg
sans-serif”>
anesthetist
sans-serif”>

Looking out for falling objects
Santa Maria Times
Michael Duncan, about it
deputy chief of space situational awareness for the Joint Space Operations Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, shows a hollow rocket body fuel tank Tuesday that re-entered the atmosphere. Duncan explains how his team determines where


link
sans-serif”>
DVICE

Hear the death wail of a meteor as it burns up in our atmosphere
DVICE
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Radar in Texas tried this during the Perseid meteor shower, and the resulting recording sounds appropriately alien. What you're about to hear in the following clip are two distinct noises caused by the brief but

and more »

here
sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk

Falling space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of "space situational awareness," or the understanding of what's happening in space with regard to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 684 news articles »

meningitis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
salve
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, Phimosis
though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have

Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
Los Angeles Times –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

herbal
sans-serif”>
The Hindu

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
NASA Satellite Re-entry This Week – Experts Available to Discuss Issues Newswise (press release)
Q&A: Falling satellites and space junkmsnbc.com
The Guardian –TIME –Santa Barbara Independent
all 5,774 news articles »

prothesis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
ampoule
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Satellite's imminent fall to Earth stirs anxietyLos Angeles Times
USA Today –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

ampoule sans-serif”> angina
sans-serif”>

US military satellite to get attack-warning equipment
Register
including those of Aviation Week on Wednesday that a classified satellite is now planned to go into space equipped with a Self-Awareness Space Situational Awareness (SASSA) package, traumatologist
kit which the Pentagon has been working on for some time.


and more »

cialis 40mg
sans-serif”>
anesthetist
sans-serif”>

Looking out for falling objects
Santa Maria Times
Michael Duncan, about it
deputy chief of space situational awareness for the Joint Space Operations Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, shows a hollow rocket body fuel tank Tuesday that re-entered the atmosphere. Duncan explains how his team determines where


link
sans-serif”>
DVICE

Hear the death wail of a meteor as it burns up in our atmosphere
DVICE
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Radar in Texas tried this during the Perseid meteor shower, and the resulting recording sounds appropriately alien. What you're about to hear in the following clip are two distinct noises caused by the brief but

and more »

here
sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk

Falling space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of "space situational awareness," or the understanding of what's happening in space with regard to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 684 news articles »

meningitis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
salve
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, Phimosis
though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have

Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
Los Angeles Times –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

herbal
sans-serif”>
The Hindu

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
NASA Satellite Re-entry This Week – Experts Available to Discuss Issues Newswise (press release)
Q&A: Falling satellites and space junkmsnbc.com
The Guardian –TIME –Santa Barbara Independent
all 5,774 news articles »

prothesis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
ampoule
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Satellite's imminent fall to Earth stirs anxietyLos Angeles Times
USA Today –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

seek sans-serif”>
ABC News
pills sans-serif”>

German satellite to hit Earth this weekend with up to 1.7 tons of debris
CNN
When the satellite crashes into the atmosphere, German scientists will be evaluating data from the US Space Surveillance Network, officials said. The US Department of Defense says that more than 21800 man-made objects have re-entered Earth's atmosphere
German ROSAT Satellite To Fall To Earth As Early As 7:30 PM TonightBrevard Times
German ROSAT Satellite Expected to Hit Earth SundayABC News
Predicting When Space Junk Will Come Home To EarthNPR

all 343 news articles »

Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

ampoule sans-serif”> angina
sans-serif”>

US military satellite to get attack-warning equipment
Register
including those of Aviation Week on Wednesday that a classified satellite is now planned to go into space equipped with a Self-Awareness Space Situational Awareness (SASSA) package, traumatologist
kit which the Pentagon has been working on for some time.


and more »

cialis 40mg
sans-serif”>
anesthetist
sans-serif”>

Looking out for falling objects
Santa Maria Times
Michael Duncan, about it
deputy chief of space situational awareness for the Joint Space Operations Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, shows a hollow rocket body fuel tank Tuesday that re-entered the atmosphere. Duncan explains how his team determines where


link
sans-serif”>
DVICE

Hear the death wail of a meteor as it burns up in our atmosphere
DVICE
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Radar in Texas tried this during the Perseid meteor shower, and the resulting recording sounds appropriately alien. What you're about to hear in the following clip are two distinct noises caused by the brief but

and more »

here
sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk

Falling space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of "space situational awareness," or the understanding of what's happening in space with regard to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 684 news articles »

meningitis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
salve
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, Phimosis
though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have

Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
Los Angeles Times –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

herbal
sans-serif”>
The Hindu

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
NASA Satellite Re-entry This Week – Experts Available to Discuss Issues Newswise (press release)
Q&A: Falling satellites and space junkmsnbc.com
The Guardian –TIME –Santa Barbara Independent
all 5,774 news articles »

prothesis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
ampoule
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Satellite's imminent fall to Earth stirs anxietyLos Angeles Times
USA Today –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

seek sans-serif”>
ABC News
pills sans-serif”>

German satellite to hit Earth this weekend with up to 1.7 tons of debris
CNN
When the satellite crashes into the atmosphere, German scientists will be evaluating data from the US Space Surveillance Network, officials said. The US Department of Defense says that more than 21800 man-made objects have re-entered Earth's atmosphere
German ROSAT Satellite To Fall To Earth As Early As 7:30 PM TonightBrevard Times
German ROSAT Satellite Expected to Hit Earth SundayABC News
Predicting When Space Junk Will Come Home To EarthNPR

all 343 news articles »

order
sans-serif”>
The Hindu
search
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
Q&A: Falling satellites and space junkmsnbc.com
Nasa satellite could fall to Earth late FridayThe Guardian
TIME –Santa Barbara Independent
all 5,774 news articles »

Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

ampoule sans-serif”> angina
sans-serif”>

US military satellite to get attack-warning equipment
Register
including those of Aviation Week on Wednesday that a classified satellite is now planned to go into space equipped with a Self-Awareness Space Situational Awareness (SASSA) package, traumatologist
kit which the Pentagon has been working on for some time.


and more »

cialis 40mg
sans-serif”>
anesthetist
sans-serif”>

Looking out for falling objects
Santa Maria Times
Michael Duncan, about it
deputy chief of space situational awareness for the Joint Space Operations Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, shows a hollow rocket body fuel tank Tuesday that re-entered the atmosphere. Duncan explains how his team determines where


link
sans-serif”>
DVICE

Hear the death wail of a meteor as it burns up in our atmosphere
DVICE
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Radar in Texas tried this during the Perseid meteor shower, and the resulting recording sounds appropriately alien. What you're about to hear in the following clip are two distinct noises caused by the brief but

and more »

here
sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk

Falling space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of "space situational awareness," or the understanding of what's happening in space with regard to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 684 news articles »

meningitis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
salve
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, Phimosis
though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have

Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
Los Angeles Times –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

herbal
sans-serif”>
The Hindu

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
NASA Satellite Re-entry This Week – Experts Available to Discuss Issues Newswise (press release)
Q&A: Falling satellites and space junkmsnbc.com
The Guardian –TIME –Santa Barbara Independent
all 5,774 news articles »

prothesis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
ampoule
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Satellite's imminent fall to Earth stirs anxietyLos Angeles Times
USA Today –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

seek sans-serif”>
ABC News
pills sans-serif”>

German satellite to hit Earth this weekend with up to 1.7 tons of debris
CNN
When the satellite crashes into the atmosphere, German scientists will be evaluating data from the US Space Surveillance Network, officials said. The US Department of Defense says that more than 21800 man-made objects have re-entered Earth's atmosphere
German ROSAT Satellite To Fall To Earth As Early As 7:30 PM TonightBrevard Times
German ROSAT Satellite Expected to Hit Earth SundayABC News
Predicting When Space Junk Will Come Home To EarthNPR

all 343 news articles »

order
sans-serif”>
The Hindu
search
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
Q&A: Falling satellites and space junkmsnbc.com
Nasa satellite could fall to Earth late FridayThe Guardian
TIME –Santa Barbara Independent
all 5,774 news articles »

apoplexy
sans-serif”>
The Hindu

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
NASA Satellite Re-entry This Week – Experts Available to Discuss Issues Newswise (press release)
Q&A: Falling satellites and space junkmsnbc.com
The Guardian –TIME
all 5,774 news articles »

Why is there so much interest in the theme of Space Surveillance? It can be tempting to thing that this is just an overblown group of self-interested parties trying to drum up funding for obscure research efforts. The reality couldn’t be any more different than this. Over the last five years, page real concern about the way in which the near space environment is becoming polluted by our past activities has been growing. The collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 on the 10th Februrary 2009 highlighted these concerns. How could an operational spacecraft be destroyed by hitting a piece of junk? The millions of dollars of investment destroyed in a millisecond was one thing, drugs but the secondary effect was the increased concentration of debris in those orbital regimes – and the effect this had on neighbouring satellites’ operations.

Of course, this wasn’t the first time that alarm had propagated through the military, governmental and industrial sectors regarding the hidden threat from space debris. On the 24th of July 1996, the French Cerise satellite had a sudden attitude failure. Further investigation concluded that it had been hit by a piece of debris (later suspected to be part of a Ariane launch) and this had reduced the ability of the satellite to point itself in the right direction. This was the first confirmed conjunction between two orbiting objects.

So what are we doing about this? It’s not that we haven’t had any space surveillance activities before. The first space surveillance system (Minitrack) was in place before the launch of Sputnik in 1959. During the cold war, the capabilities to detect and track orbiting satellites increased enormously in both the USA and Russia. Of course, the idea for these systems wasn’t to detect debris, but to observe what the other side was doing and ensure compliance with the various non-proliferation treaties in place (notably the 1967 Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – also known as the 1967 Outer Space Treaty).

As a result, both the US and Russia have highly sophisticated surveillance and tracking systems. The US system (USSTRATCOM JFCC-SPACE) has a declared detection resolution of around 10cm diameter in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ability to accurately track objects at higher orbits varies. The Russian SSA system is a combination of both military and civilian systems. This probably has an accuracy similar to the US system in LEO, although the optical tracking system operated by ISON has superb coverage worldwide and is possibly the most complete system of its type.

Of course, with the possible exception of ISON, these systems were not designed to track debris objects – at least to the size which is hazardous to operational satellites. The US is already actively updating its network of sensors to be able to detect to smaller sizes. The goal of around 2cm has been indicated, however the logistics of maintaining an accurate catalogue of objects of this dimension is challenging.

So, why all this activity? The debris population has been growing very quickly over the last five years, due to collisions and a brief case of anti-satellite missile testing. The population of objects larger than 10cm (the size that we can currently detect) in 1990 was around 7,500. This grew to 10,000 by 2000 and then a huge jump to 16,000 by 2010. No wonder agencies worldwide are starting to really get worried about this. The impact (pardon the pun) on satellite operations is now being felt on a daily basis. Satellite which are orbiting in the most populated regions are having to perform costly avoidance manoeuvres in order to reduce the chances of a fatal collision. This uses irreplaceable fuel and reduces the lifetime of these resources – something nobody really wants to have to do.

In response to this threat – and specifically after the Iridium-Cosmos collision – the US began to issue warnings via JSpOC to satellite operators, whether solicited or not. This was a very interesting approach and began with the realisation that the orbital altitudes are a shared resource: something that cannot be compartmentalised into “your space” and “my space”. A contamination of space affects all those satellites passing through those altitudes and the damage is indescriminate.

Given that the US system is military in nature and function, there is a limitation as to what the US can provide in their warnings. Although there is work in progress to improve this, there is no guarantee regarding the accuracy of the data, nor is there any public method to validate the calculations. This is understandable – military capabilities are military capabilities. However the lack of this data reduces the efficiency and confidence that operators have when manoeuvring their spacecraft. Since the US specifically takes no liability regarding the information provided, this does take a leap of faith from the operators to risk their assets (and possibly their careers) on slightly fuzzy data.

So, where is Europe in all of this? It has been recognised at many levels; governmental (SSA centres have been developed in France and here, Germany and here and questions were raised in the UK parliament to highlight the need for a strong SSA capability) as well as institutional (EU Council, European Commission, Western European Union). All agree that something should be done to ensure that Europe has the ability to protect its satellites and provide the ability to ensure our compliance with the international treaties that Europe and its constituent countries have signed up for.

But what exists in Europe? Barring inclusion of the SSPAR (Space Surveillance Phased-Array Rader) in Northern England, which is part of the US system, Europe has two main assets for LEO space surveillance. The first of these is GRAVES (Grand Réseau Adapté à la Veille Spatiale) is a bistatic radar developed to help the French Air Force to detect satellites in orbit. It is a very efficient system, and creates orbits of all those satellite which fly over its field of regard,  however its performance is probably above the 50cm range and hence of limited coverage for the majority of dangerous debris objects. There is also the BEM Monge, a French naval vessel designed to support France’s nuclear deterrent, but also capable of tracking individual orbiting objects. Germany has the TIRA (Tracking and Imaging RAdar) which is operated by Fraunhofer and was originally developed to track ballistic missiles. Being a parabolic dish, it is limited in the same way as Monge in that it can only track a couple of objects at once – and the radar needs to know where they are going to be before tracking them.

As such, the existing assets available to cover LEO altitudes have limited capabilities and if they were used to provide a satellite catalogue, then they would be only a fraction (a small fraction) of the US one. It is no suprising then that the new Space Surveillance Centres that exist, rely in part on the data provided from the US.

On the optical side, things are a little better, since numerous telescopes exist around Europe which can provide images of satellites in higher orbits (such as MEO or GEO). Among them is the work done by Space Insight Ltd, the University of Bern, the Astronomical Observatory of Mallorca and the new Fabra-Roa Telescope. However, with the exception of TAROT, they are all located geographically closely and coverage over most of the globe is limited.

The Member States of the European Space Agency (ESA) took the step in 2008 to approve the beginning of the first pan-European SSA development programme. The SSA-PP (Precursor Programme) began in earnest in 2009 and is due to request for funds to build a full system in 2012. Of course, in the current financial climate, available funds are limited, however given the amount of interest given across Europe for this kind of system – and considering the

ed
sans-serif”>

SMi… Vienna Venue (Event)
SatNews Publishers
the opportunity to network with key military space experts from across Europe and the US and hear from a number of high-level speakers discussing key topics including interoperability, national space programs and space situational awareness.

ampoule sans-serif”> angina
sans-serif”>

US military satellite to get attack-warning equipment
Register
including those of Aviation Week on Wednesday that a classified satellite is now planned to go into space equipped with a Self-Awareness Space Situational Awareness (SASSA) package, traumatologist
kit which the Pentagon has been working on for some time.


and more »

cialis 40mg
sans-serif”>
anesthetist
sans-serif”>

Looking out for falling objects
Santa Maria Times
Michael Duncan, about it
deputy chief of space situational awareness for the Joint Space Operations Center at Vandenberg Air Force Base, shows a hollow rocket body fuel tank Tuesday that re-entered the atmosphere. Duncan explains how his team determines where


link
sans-serif”>
DVICE

Hear the death wail of a meteor as it burns up in our atmosphere
DVICE
The US Air Force Space Surveillance Radar in Texas tried this during the Perseid meteor shower, and the resulting recording sounds appropriately alien. What you're about to hear in the following clip are two distinct noises caused by the brief but

and more »

here
sans-serif”>
Telegraph.co.uk

Falling space junk
Daily Local News
AGI is considered an expert in the area of "space situational awareness," or the understanding of what's happening in space with regard to satellites and debris, otherwise known as space junk, Welsh said. AGI software is used operationally in this
Huge German Space Junk Satellite To Fall To Earth Between October 22 and 23Brevard Times

all 684 news articles »

meningitis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
salve
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, Phimosis
though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have

Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
Los Angeles Times –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

herbal
sans-serif”>
The Hindu

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
NASA Satellite Re-entry This Week – Experts Available to Discuss Issues Newswise (press release)
Q&A: Falling satellites and space junkmsnbc.com
The Guardian –TIME –Santa Barbara Independent
all 5,774 news articles »

prothesis
sans-serif”>
Globe and Mail
ampoule
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Military Tracks Errant Satellite for NASADepartment of Defense
FAA warns pilots to watch for falling satellite debrismsnbc.com
Satellite's imminent fall to Earth stirs anxietyLos Angeles Times
USA Today –Fox News
all 5,826 news articles »

seek sans-serif”>
ABC News
pills sans-serif”>

German satellite to hit Earth this weekend with up to 1.7 tons of debris
CNN
When the satellite crashes into the atmosphere, German scientists will be evaluating data from the US Space Surveillance Network, officials said. The US Department of Defense says that more than 21800 man-made objects have re-entered Earth's atmosphere
German ROSAT Satellite To Fall To Earth As Early As 7:30 PM TonightBrevard Times
German ROSAT Satellite Expected to Hit Earth SundayABC News
Predicting When Space Junk Will Come Home To EarthNPR

all 343 news articles »

order
sans-serif”>
The Hindu
search
sans-serif”>

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
Q&A: Falling satellites and space junkmsnbc.com
Nasa satellite could fall to Earth late FridayThe Guardian
TIME –Santa Barbara Independent
all 5,774 news articles »

apoplexy
sans-serif”>
The Hindu

Final Grave of Fallen NASA Satellite May Stay a Mystery
Space.com
These sensors make up the Space Surveillance Network. Sometimes, though, the spacecraft may not be passing over any of them. [Photos of NASA's Huge Falling Satellite UARS] "One of the ways you find out a satellite is no longer in orbit is you have
Vague Predictions as Satellite Falls to EarthVoice of America
NASA Satellite Re-entry This Week – Experts Available to Discuss Issues Newswise (press release)
Q&A: Falling satellites and space junkmsnbc.com
The Guardian –TIME
all 5,774 news articles »

The Blog

Saturn’s storms have an hypnotic effect. Great images from the ESA/NASA Cassini/Huygens mission http://j.mp/1v8TncM

http://j.mp/1v8TncM via LinkedIn

Defend the people: SSA and Civil Protection

Back in November, refractionist
I was invited to present at the III Jornadas de Técnicas Sobre Meteorología Espacial (3rd Technical Day on Space Weather), cure hosted by the Spanish Civil Protection group […]

The Space Binman

El basurero del espacio – 30/12/13 “The space binman” is the title of the latest interview I gave on Spanish radio. A nice chat with Frank Smith, with whom I […]

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